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LA498 Module 2 discussions

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Please respond to the following two posts each if 250 words or more. Respond thoroughly and thoughtfully. Use references and NO plagiarism. Must be complete tomorrow by noon EST. The posts are as follows:


Proposal: Nuclear Disarmament (Group 1)

Nuclear disarmament is a global issue that needs to be analyzed from all points of view because certain nations believe nuclear power is a necessity whereas other nations are wary of too much nuclear power and believe in disarmament to maintain a balance of power. Nuclear power has been an ongoing issue in history and shapes politics of today as nations are either participating in nuclear disarmament or proliferation while trying to maintain stability on a global scale. 

Failure to comply with nuclear disarmament will and has already resulted in the creation of weapons of mass destruction that has given nations the capability of using deadly force, which places all nations at potential risk of a national security crisis. There have been many treaties dealing with nuclear non-proliferation in the past and the violation of these treaties has put a strain on the relations of many nations, especially now with the threat of nuclear terrorism, Seitelbach (2014).  

Without the proper understanding of these dynamics and the perspectives of varying nations, we only gain what we hear from one side. There is not one right answer on how to go about for the advocacy of nuclear disarmament but with certain strategies catered to all nations, we may see future success. By examining the dynamics of nuclear non-proliferation, we can begin to comprehend how this issue has come to rise and the ways in which future nuclear negotiations may be possible, Bluth (2012). With Bluth’s explanation, we can understand the reasons states attain nuclear power and the how the threats are felt nationwide. By focusing on hindrances to nuclear disarmament we can see how a balance could be reached in promoting disarmament, Rinn (2013).

Although some view nuclear power as essential to maintaining a global sphere of balance, it is a very complex matter that needs to be focused on from all viewpoints to understand not only the problem, but the actions in the first place. This proposal will analyze all elements of my proposal and examine the ways in which nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation may be possible for the security of all nations.


Seitelbach, E. (2014). Nuclear non-proliferation, rogue actors and the middle east. Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 19(1/2), 101-108.

Bluth, C. (2012). The irrelevance of ‘trusting relationships’ in the nuclear non-proliferation treaty:

Reconsidering the dynamics of proliferation. British Journal of Politics & International

Relations, 1(1), 115-130.

Bluth, C. (2012). The irrelevance of ‘trusting relationships’ in the nuclear non-proliferation treaty:

Reconsidering the dynamics of proliferation. British Journal of Politics & International

Relations, 1(1), 115-130.


SCAFFOLD STEP #2 ORGANS FOR SALEAlice Ann DrewkeLA498 Excelsior College


Black market organ procurement is a scourge that has gained the attention of the Vatican and generates billions of dollars of revenue annually for international criminal and terrorist organizations. Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) was nominated for the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.  They are bringing to light unethical practices in China for harvesting organs without consent.  DAFOH believes this practice is a crime against humanity.(Šućur, Gajović, 2016).  Over the years various groups meet and condemn the unsavory practice of white-collar criminal activity of organ procurement, but is this enough? (McGuinness, McHale, 2014).

In my depth of health care professions, I will explore the management of organ donation a cultural dilemma that is increasingly subject to abuse.  The procurement process in many regions is morally and ethically void.  The increasing ability to harvest organs and transport them quickly, combined with medical tourism, creates a breeding ground for abuse.  Unsavory practices cost lives every year. 

There are surgical techniques for “transplanting virtually every organ in the body” (Clemmons, 2009, p 232). With increased surgical skills and life prolonging medications to prevent rejection, there is an increased demand for organs to transplant.  In Western society altruism is relied upon for organs to meet the demand for transplants.  Donation is usually anonymous and is the preferred legal method.   In the remainder of the world unsavory practices are employed to meet the demand for transplantable organs. There is a growing black market for organ purchase.  Illegal organ transplants cost hundreds of thousands of dollars that must be paid by the transplant recipient, resulting in the affluent, politically connected members of society fueling the black market in organs to extend their lives. 

The means used to harvest these organs range from impoverished individuals selling their organs and medical and funeral professionals harvesting organs from the deceased in their care, to the kidnapping and harvesting of organs from unsuspecting, non consenting victims in an unsavory manner.  This lends credence to the urban myth of waking up in a bathtub full of ice with a kidney missing.  The worst of these practices is murder and the harvesting of all usable organs from targeted victims.  An organ harvester can earn tens of thousands of dollars for a single organ. 

One of the ways under exploration to gain more organs for transplant is for HIV positive patient to be able to donate to other HIV positive recipients.  (Saitta-Gill, 2015). This would allow HIV infected patients with virtually undetectable levels of the disease, to receive organs.

Wait times for an organ are reduced when an organ is purchased. Are there advantages of a contracted organ sale and is that organ safe? (Jahromi, Fry-Revere, Bastani, (2015, pp 256, 257)

This paper addresses these issues and some controls that might curb the illegal trade in black market organs. 


Clemmons, A. (2009). Organ transplantation: is the best approach a legalized market or altruism? Journal Of Healthcare Management, 54(4), pp. 231-240.

Jahromi, A. H., Fry-Revere, S., Bastani, B. (2015). A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis. Iranian Journal Of Kidney Diseases, 9(5), pp. 354-360.

McGuinness, S., & McHale, J. V. (2014). Transnational crimes related to health: How should the law respond to the illicit organ tourism? Legal Studies, 34(4), pp. 682-708. doi:10.1111/lest.12037

Saitta-Gill, N. (2015). SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF ORGAN DONATION SHORTAGE. University Of Baltimore Law Review, 4529

Šućur, A., Gajović, S. (2016, June). Nobel Peace Prize nomination for Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) – a recognition of upholding ethical practices in medicine. Croatian Medical Journal. pp. 219-222. doi:10.3325/cmj.2016.57.219

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