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ETHC445 final exam 2017 (Score 100%)

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Question 1. 1.(TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient’s direction reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)Hobbes’ State of NatureRand’s ObjectivismAristotle’s concept of VirtueThomas Aquinas’ concept of conscienceSocrates’ concept of excellence Question 2. 2.(TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of justice? (Points : 5) Acts of mercy beyond what is requiredMaking decisions in order to build friendshipsMeeting legal requirementsEvaluation of situations according to their meritsMeeting the terms of the Social Contract Question 3. 3.(TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is unwarranted assumptions. Unwarranted assumptions consist of what?(Points : 5)Preconceptions before ethical dilemmas are confrontedFailing to read carefully and with attention to detailTaking too much for grantedSpeculating apart from informationTreating case studies carelessly Question 4. 4.(TCO 2) Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5) To indicate what is prohibited or impossibleTo indicate that one choice is better than othersTo show what actions are legalTo convey requirements and obligationsTo indicate that there are really no choices available Question 5. 5.(TCOs 7, 8) Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own interests.(Points : 5) UtilitarianismKant’s Categorical ImperativeSocial Contract TheoryEthical EgoismGilligan Question 6. 6.(TCOs 2, 4, 9) Free people are motivated toward forming social structures according to a social contract in order to overcome what problem identified by Thomas Hobbes? (Points : 5)The need to overcome disagreementsA perpetual state of warfareThe establishment of a monarchyTaxation to support the costs of governmentOrganized ways to select leaders Question 7. 7.(TCOs 3, 6) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include which of the following? (Points : 5) Subpoena regulation offendersMonitor situations of environmental concernFine offendersSponsor new legislation on environmental issuesAll of the above. Question 8. 8.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) The notion that the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom? (Points : 5) St. Thomas AquinasSocratesJohn LockeImmanuel KantOliver Cromwell Question 9. 9.(TCOs 8, 9) John Stuart Mill’s theory of Utilitarianism is the most common form of ethics in use today. It is used so commonly because it belongs to which of the Primary Schools of Ethics? (Points : 5)Care-basedEnds-basedEconomy-basedLaw-basedEfficiency-based Question 10. 10.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) What is the purpose of proving whether a syllogism of formal logic is “valid”? (Points : 5) To identify the connecting phrase “therefore” or a synonym of it before proceeding furtherTo determine whether the situation described is accurateTo determine whether the premises are true before continuingTo determine whether the conclusion proceeds from the premisesTo determine that there are only two premise statements in the syllogism Question 11. 11.(TCOs 1, 2) Different from normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5) Problems are much more complicatedWhen one choice is chosen, the opportunity for the others is lostProblems are much more urgentProblems are so much more real and less theoreticalProblems usually involve not honoring our own virtues Question 12. 12.(TCOs 1, 2, 7) According to Thomas Aquinas, what ethical capacity do people of every culture naturally possess? (Points : 5)Logical thinkingPersonal virtuesSelf-interestAbility to learn lessonsConscience Question 13. 13.(TCOs 2, 8) The single criterion for making decisions in objectivist ethics is what? (Points : 5) Professional developmentPersonal self-interestThe physical environmentFinancial gainThe close group of family and friends who will be impacted Question 14. 14.(TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in which of these concepts? (Points : 5)Locke’s notion of the natural state of manRawls’ notion of the veil of ignoranceAristotle’s notion of the doctrine of the meanHammurabi’s code of lawHobbes’ state of nature Question 15. 15.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant’s concern that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through what actions?(Points : 5)Their habitsTheir maximsTheir desiresTheir lovesTheir loyalties Question 16. 16.(TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)PlatoAristotleLutherAugustineSocrates Question 17. 17.(TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5) Allow businesses to avoid training professional staffersEnable transfer of valued employees across state linesEnable contracting of temporary employeesSpecify continuing education needs and requirementsProviding assurance of the professional qualifications of members Question 18. 18.(TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it. If the virtue is GENEROSITY, and the excess is WASTEFULNESS, what is the deficiency?(Points : 5)CarefulnessThere is no deficiencyBeing broke (having no money)StinginessModeration Question 19. 19.(TCOs 8, 9) In personal or organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or consultant employees one of the ethical conflict resolution models of Week 6? (Points : 5)Objectives of what winning the conflict means get refined and better understoodConflict management gets slowed down and settled.Conflict can be handled in a sequential, step-by-step mannerParties can be reconciled without solving the issuesPersonal relationships can be separated from issues Question 20. 20.(TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posterioridescribes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a priorimanner? (Points : 5)Utilitarian ethicsObjectivist ethicsDeontological ethicsPolitical ethicsScientific ethics 

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